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In 2012, Rio de Janeiro Summit, organised by the United Nations and called “Rio +20”, analysed the progress made since the summit held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, and it also announced that the Millennium Goals were to be replaced—starting in 2015—by the Sustainable Development Goals, also called “the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals”.

In September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly approved the agenda, which sets up a transformational view to economic, social and environmental sustainability. The current development paradigm should be transformed into an inclusive paradigm based on sustainable development and with a long-term vision.

The agenda comprises the 17 goals below :

Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere.
Goal 2: Zero hunger. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.
Goal 3: Good Health. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.
Goal 4: Quality education. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.
Goal 5: Gender equality. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation. Ensure availability and sustainable manage- ment of water and sanitation for all.
Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sus- tainable and modern energy for all.
Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.
Goal 9: Industry, innovation, infrastructure. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialisation and foster innovation.
Goal 10: Reduced inequalities. Reduce inequality within and among countries.
Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.
Goal 12: Responsible consumption and production. Ensure sustainable consump- tion and production patterns.
Goal 13: Climate Action. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.
Goal 14: Life below water. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.
Goal 15: Life on land. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.
Goal 16: Peace, justice and strong institutions. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.
Goal 17: Partnership for the goals. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalise the global partnership for sustainable development.